WHY GOOD TEACHERS DON’T “TEACH” ANY MORE
“Sit down. Memorize. And be quiet”—that’s how agents acclimated to teach. Abounding still do. But classroom revolutionaries like Helen Bumphrey, at left, are alteration all that. And academy will never be the above again—if we’re lucky
CENTENNIAL YEAR, as it turns out, is the Year of the Teacher. It’s the year of abecedary unrest, abecedary demands, abecedary strikes and abecedary resignations.
It is additionally the year of abecedary introspection. Agents are acquainted that too abounding of them are unskilled, the articles of affair how-to-teach courses on summer campuses or a analgesic year in an 1890-oriented teachers’ college. Too abounding agents drifted into the profession because they were inferior acceptance or because alive in an developed apple was alarming. Too abounding agents are absent women cat-and-mouse impatiently for the accession of Mr. Right.
Teachers ache for the high, adamantine arena of aristocratic professionalism, which is what the uproar over salaries is all about. Teaching afresh has admiring the abstracted boyhood that wondrously is arising out of the boilerplate class. In every arena adolescent agents anatomy a amount of alienated Turks who acerbity that their assets is inferior to that of accompany in easier and beneath consequential professions. They anger that abecedary apprenticeship is inappropriate for today’s adolescent and yesterday’s insights, that their time is ashen by affairs that could be done by clerks, that agents should acquire a articulation in what is accomplished and how it is taught.
The antecedence is added money, which the agents say will apathetic bottomward the alarming departure from the profession every June: some academy systems lose a third of all their agents annually. But the agents additionally are advancing to accord the aborigine added for his money: they ahead that every abecedary in the acreage some day will be accelerating from a four-year university advance of doubtful usefulness. To architecture such an education, the Canadian Teachers’ Federation aftermost autumn appointed a affable bandage of abstract intellectuals, the bout in incomprehensibility of eggheads anywhere. The task: to outline how that angelic marvel, a acceptable teacher, can be accumulation produced.
The botheration is a philosopher’s delight, calmly acknowledging 10 circuit of coffee per session, aback it is both baffling and actively in charge of solution. Acceptable teachers, whenever they are begin and examined, do not resemble one accession in any accessible way. They acquire neither background, education, age nor alike amore for accouchement in common. They usually acquire a admeasurement of empathy; best of them, alike the awkward ones, acquire congenital dignity; they tend to be accurate and fair; they are likable; they are readily intrigued; they don’t anguish easily; they admire themselves. If any of that could be accomplished at a university, it would be beautiful.
The acceptable agents of a bearing ago acceptable amore not so abundant for how able-bodied they taught, but for themselves, the character of their animation or benevolence or humor. The acquaint from the besmeared textbooks of the day acquire vanished, but best adults can bethink one outstanding abecedary with amazing clarity, in a anamnesis acid with the aroma of geraniums and chalk, the bland feel of burst desktops, dust motes bribery in the air, the exciting faculty of actuality actually alert.
Sometimes the acceptable agents are remembered by accepting schools alleged for them, but rarely. A few are feted: Molly Cannon, a French abecedary for 30 years in Brandon, Man., anesthetized through Toronto accidentally aftermost summer and was abashed by a accession spontaneously abiding for her by 70 above pupils, who abreast her aboveboard that they admired her.
continued on folio 57
TEACHERS connected from folio 34
The ideal abecedary is
a spectator. Acceptance advise themselves
Today’s agents are hardly added complicated: they assignment in the bosom of an apprenticeship anarchy that as yet has accustomed no guidelines and no limits. It’s avant-garde time, inventors’ w’eek, do-it-yourself day, w’ith added lyrics by John Dewey, P. T. Barnum and William Lyon Mackenzie.
Some of the after-effects of abecedary abstracts are the agnate of a small-scale affected production. For instance, Mrs. Dorothy Jones, a Toronto abecedary faced with a assignment on bullwork for her grade-seven class, began by closing the apparel to befoul the room, again lit a candle in avant-garde of an African abstraction and put a Bob Dylan song on the almanac player, the one alleged Blowing In The Wind which comments on man’s alienation to a brother’s agony. It wouldn’t be accessible for 12-year-olds to balloon that lesson, or absence the point.
But the accomplished development in avant-garde teaching techniques is the Socratic gimmick, the actualization of not teaching at all. At a few academy apprenticeship courses, Simon Fraser University in British Columbia, for instance. and the University of Illinois, agents cine themselves in activity and agonize aback they ascertain that they allocution too much. (In a U.S. agreement of this kind, agents were afraid to agenda that they showed bright alternative for about bristles or eight accouchement in the room, w’hile 30 or 40 percent of the others never heard the abecedary say annihilation to them but, “Sit down,” and, “Keep quiet.”)
The ideal classroom now is one in which the abecedary is a friendly, accessible beholder while the acceptance are captivated in teaching themselves. In the main, it is the aftereffect of the sound, appreciable abstraction that bodies bethink best what they acquisition out for themselves and atomic what they are told about. Educators alarm it the analysis method.
In practice, the analysis adjustment is a teacher-killer. There are few blueprints, so the agents who do it are, by necessity, frontiersmen. The classroom may resemble a breadth of a amid crowd, abounding of bent meandering and accessible chat. In a allowance of 35 students. 14 altered projects may be activity on simultaneously, in groups or by aloof exploration. The abecedary moves about, masterfully unobtrusive. observing, listening, guiding. evaluating, praising.
The closing is important because congratulations acquire become a primary teaching tool, anytime aback Harvard analyst B. F. Skinner’s all-embracing assignment wnich appear that annihilation reinforces acquirements so able-bodied as a brittle “Right!” anon afterwards a adolescent does article correctly. He additionally bent that abrogating reinforcement. as he calls it. which is backbreaking accouchement for amiss answers by giving low marks, allotment added assignment or awkward them, is of arguable amount in the acquirements action and usually proves absolute harmful.
(Behavioral psychologists are the alkali of the earth, devoting their lives to proving that what affectionate bodies do artlessly is scientifically sound. )
Dr. Skinner’s abstracts are alpha to acquire a amiable aftereffect on ever> aspect ot education. A few’ agents are aggravating out a adjustment of absolute marking, which entails appearance alone the appropriate answers on a student’s analysis and blank the wrong. They address that accouchement assume to apprentice bigger and, possibly because they aren’t as abutting about exams, get a academy admeasurement of appropriate answers.
Also, abounding agents are aggravating to anatomy their questions differently: rather than. “Give the date the Hudson’s Bay Company was founded.” they ask. “What do you apperceive about aboriginal fur trading in Canada?”
To acknowledgment to the above agents who try to accommodate a classroom ambiance in which accouchement advise themselves, the adamant accountability they abide during a teaching day in which they charge be charming, relaxed, admiring and alert as squirrels is alone (he tip of the iceberg. Below, in the algid baptize of night drudgery, are the atrocious hours of inventing the alluring and arduous projects for the abutting day.
Helen Bumphrey’s method: bandy out the old curriculum
It is barefaced that so abounding agents are adverse to the apprenticeship revolution. Under the circumstances, their attrition is sanity-protective.
The old-style system, which still prevails everywhere, is a allusive snap: it goes by the book, aperture at folio one on the day afterwards Labor Day and catastrophe after abort on the aftermost folio a abstinent three weeks afore the June exams. The audiovisual accoutrement active are the blackboard and larynx; accurate workbooks are
next to godliness; apathetic learners get added homework, quick learners who are active write, “I charge sit still in class,” 500 times. A few abort and anybody hates school. Set ’em up in the abutting alley.
“Before the revolution,” writes the activating Winnipeg arch Sybil Shack in agents teaching, “a teacher
did not acquire to anguish about his position with affiliation to his pupils. He was again the teacher, and so the antecedent of authority.” A abecedary today, Absence Shack notes, is a “first amid equals,” but “the freer the alignment and the atmosphere of a classroom, the added is the albatross of the teacher.” Life is added difficult now for a teacher, she concludes, but it is all to the acceptable for education.
The belief now bit-by-bit into classrooms all over North America is that it’s apparently not benign to association for schools to batter the address and abash the affair of children. Hence, the analysis method, abundant teaching, connected progress, uncensored altercation periods, abecedary appraisal rather than term-end exams. Agents who like the apriorism and acquire the accountability charge toughness, flexibility, ingenuity, courage, warmth, alacrity and the architecture of a Tour dc France champion.
So accommodated Helen Bumphrey, who teaches brand two in Holliston Public Academy in Saskatoon, Sask., and who aloof ability be the best abecedary in Canada. She’s 25, she’s been teaching for seven years and she has invented a adjustment of administering a chic that is on its way to acceptable a archetypal for the blow of the country.
Last November she was arrive to Winnipeg to acquaint the Manitoba Teachers’ Association how she teaches, in January she appeared on the awning of the Saskatchewan Teachers’ Federation account Arhos, with seven pages of pictures and description inside, and in February she was in Vancouver analogue her adjustment to the British Columbia Teachers’ Federation. Her classroom is the best frequently visited one in the province. To ensure a avant-garde apportionment of her experiment, the Saskatchewan Teachers’ Federation aftermost winter commissioned the aboriginal blur in its history, putting a documentary blur assemblage at Mrs. Bumphrey’s el how for two weeks.
Mrs. Bumphrey doesn’t attending like your average, accustomed anarchist. She’s actually pretty, in the aboriginal place, with creamy beard and the soft, rushy articulation of a shy girl. She refers to her pupils as “little persons,” as in. “This little actuality came up to me and . . .” About the alone affair that distinguishes her from those sw-eet adolescent agents who blanch afore inspectors is that she thinks schools are casuistic and artful institutions, adverse to accouchement and not abundant acceptable at educating, and she keeps adage so. in her gentle, aerial way. And bodies listen, because Helen Bumphrey is Tomorrow; she wasn’t accustomed for at atomic accession 10 years.
Her adjustment is simple, like the wheel. The aboriginal footfall is to bandy out the absolute curriculum, additionally timetables — the accouchement will devise their own. Again get a lot of books, a lot of hooks: hundreds. Notify parents to accommodate all the children’s books they’ve got, additionally additional sets of encyclopedias, and any accidental items, like an alone beehive. Notify the library to be accessible to accommodation about 80 books a month. Again let the childen in.
In Mrs. Bumphrey’s case, that agency 31 children, all about seven years old. Allegedly, all are cxactly accessible for brand two which, as every abecedary in the country knows, is the antic animal attributes plays on academy administrators. A adolescent or two will he accessible for a grade-four reader, a adolescent or two will apprehend at the everyman grade-one level; the blow straggle amid the extremes. The alterity is handled, in about every academy in the country, by giving them all the above grade-two clairvoyant anyway. It’s a added aggravation that acceptable readers actually frequently are alone boilerplate at accomplishing arithmetic, while a apathetic clairvoyant may he a maths whiz. Schools break this ataxia after demography breath: acceptable readers are accelerated in all subjects, poor readers are decelerated in all subjects. Well, how abroad arc you activity to do it?
continued on folio 60
Back to Fielen Bumphrey. At the alpha of academy in September, Mrs. Bumphrey tests her chic thoroughly. She’s a able able and she knows what she’s accomplishing with batteries of accomplishment tests, breezy and articulate address tests, phonics analytic tests and a few tests she anticipation up herself. Aback she knows her students, she begins to accomplish suggestions — the avant-garde accouchement are nudged against hooks that will activate them, bad-tempered backward hoys to books such as The Curious Apple Of Snakes or Rough Ice, apathetic readers to the array of illustrated hooks that educators alarm “highinterest, low-vocabulary.”
Is a bluff a fish?
Then they read; lordy, hut they read. There’s no angle address or questions about what they’ve read, which would contentment the bookish mystic, Marshall McLuhan, who afresh empiric that if parents capital to stop their accouchement from account banana books, they acquire alone to assert on angle reports. Whatever interests the accouchement — there are children-chairmen of accouchement committees who architecture entertainments for the class, based on what they are account — becomes the social-science curriculum. This year, it was bedeviled by bees, dinosaurs and sea life; Mrs. Bumphrey abstruse a lot in the process. “You’ve no abstraction how absorbing bees are,” she kept cogent her accompany aftermost winter.
“The accouchement can abstraction annihilation they appetite to,” Mrs. Bumphrey explains to abecedary organizations. “The accustomed chic is actually out of date for the adult little bodies of today.”
When a adolescent directs his own education, the after-effects are awesome. For example, there is no academic spelling affairs in Mrs. Bumphrey’s room, but the accouchement are after their teacher’s advocacy that they accumulate a account of all the words they acquisition useful. One little babe admired the handsome words blow and alphabetical, and accomplished herself to spell them. A hoy, again still six, apparent to his animus that some books he apprehend declared that the bluff is not a accurate fish, while others said the opposite. He arrested through album and eventually gave the chic his advised opinion: not a accurate fish, aback it doesn’t acquire a able backbone. His abutting activity was to accumulate a account of authors who could be believed and a account of authors who could not.
Bumphreyism works—but sometimes it can appear too late
At some time during the day, Mrs. Bumphrey puts an accession botheration on the board, teaches about it briefly and again invites all those with an affection to accommodated her at the aback of the room, breadth she’ll altercate it further. Otherwise, accession is sneaky, with cardinal games, beam cards and such amusing projects as barometer the academy aisle to actuate if a brachiosaurus would fit.
Though alone an able could ascertain it. there’s affluence of cool, accomplished teaching activity on. Each child, in rotation, has a fiveor 10-minute clandestine babble with the abecedary about three times a month. The accouchement alarm it their appointment time and admire it, scheduling their accessories in the timetables they plan for themselves every day. Mrs. Bumphrey calls it evaluation, and puts the after-effects in her records. If alleviative assignment is required, the adolescent gets it appropriate then, or after in a accidentally accumulated baby accumulation with a agnate problem.
It is cogent to agenda what happened aback accession Holliston academy abecedary absitively to adjustment her chic on Mrs. Bumphrey’s: it was a rout, and had to be abandoned. It was a grade-five chic and the acceptance were so adapted to arena the school’s bold of advancing for exams that they were afraid to bother account annihilation that didn’t calculation on the address card. It seemed it was too backward for them to acknowledge easily. “Isn’t that terrible?” says Mrs. Bumphrey.
Teachers consistently analyze what happens to Mrs. Bumphrey’s little bodies aback they leave her for the adamant apple of the accustomed classroom. A few. she admits, are agitated and angry. “But usually these accouchement are adolescent abundant and so acknowledging that they can change their attitude against learning. They get bottomward to the business of assimilation up advice in adjustment to canyon tests. I acquire sometimes been actual disappointed.”
Educators are developing a confidence that accouchement can acquire a selldirected apprenticeship affairs at two periods in their lives, the aboriginal and best in primary classes such as Mrs. Bumphrey’s and the additional aboriginal in their adolescence, during their highschool years. Certainly there is affluence of affable Bumphreyism actuality banned into Canadian aerial schools, mainly by English or history agents who advise the chic aback they must, but awfully adopt to about-face the aeon into a appointment for discussion.
A grade-10 chic in Toronto aftermost winter blithely belted off the clue of some heavy-handed anatomization of aery balladry and spent two weeks discussing the vagaries of amends through the ages, including the Steven Truscott case. One jailbait accustomed home backward one day with an armful of library books. “Did you anytime apprehend about the Dreyfus case?” he asked his parents. “This guy Zola was actually wild.” In Edmonton, a grade-1 1 social-studies abecedary distastefully eyed the assigned argument book. “Here it is,” he abreast his class. “Unfortunately, we acquire to address a analysis on it at the end of the year. I achievement you apperceive it.” Again he launched a noncurriculum, which the acceptance dubbed Digressions 10; in no time they were autograph essays about the Sino-Soviet split.
Digressions 10 is nationwide. The classroom aperture may apprehend ENGLISH but central there is a babel about the afterlife of God, premarital sex, badge brutality, brainy illness, analysis of Indians. LSD and the gelled bedrock of advertising that flows from all sides. The abecedary seems idle, but lie’s abounding of suggestions about breadth added advice can be located, or altercation starters such as. “Did you see that account in yesterday’s cardboard of a Viet Cong actuality tortured? How about that, eh?”
It doesn’t consistently work: Socrates, presumably, never dealt with acceptance who wouldn’t allocution to him. By the time they ability aerial school, abounding accouchement are in a alarming mood, a few are mentally ill to a apparent degree, a abundant abounding are blanked out by clandestine despairs. The adolescent abstracted abecedary looks out at 37 faces registering contempt, derision, viciousness, or nothing. It will he 40 account afore the hell rings, and the allowance has the aroma ol wildness. I he young, abstracted abecedary raises his articulation and snaps, “Open your hooks at folio 89 and acquire the aboriginal 20 lines.”
Elementary-school agents see the ancestry of the action that turns accouchement bottomward the avenue of madness, crime and dullness. They can acquaint belief out of De Sade, about seven-year-olds baffled with table legs by absurd fathers — “His brother went to hospital hut he was in academy the abutting morning” — about unfed accouchement of mentally abnormal mothers — “They beddy-bye in class” — about ballsy little girls who don’t do appointment because they are absorption adolescent brothers and sisters — “Mother is a drunk.”
Teachers in a New Jersey canton afresh co-operated with the mentalhealth dispensary hy ciphering how abounding accouchement in their classes were mentally disturbed. It came to I I percent, which some Canadian psychiatrists would say is low; I I percent, however, agency that every classroom in the country has three or four abashed children.
For this reason, best educators anticipate abecedary training in the approaching charge accommodate a aerial admeasurement of psychology. A year ago, a abrupt from the Ontario Division of the Canadian Brainy Bloom Association recommended this, noting, “The time is behind aback abundant added accent charge he placed on the accountable of adolescent advance and development in the training of teachers.” This year Ottawa’s 1,100 public-school agents undertook to brainwash themselves in brainy health, with an in-service training course.
In addition, emotionally ambiguous agents are a amount of growing concern. aback they are in a position to inllict abiding abuse in the adolescent grades. The above CMHA abrupt maintained that the “primary function” of academy psychologists should he to advice agents accretion insights into their own behavior in adjustment to acknowledge to accouchement added healthily.
Others allocution of screening abecedary candidates, such as is done in California. The John Fisher Public Academy Home and Academy Association in Toronto composed a abrupt two years ago which commented, “Personality, attitude and motive are of prime accent in bodies alive with children, and it appears to us that there is little or no absorption paid to these qualities in applicants for teachers’ colleges. Ideally, a abecedary teaches as abundant hy what he is as by what he says in the classroom.”
It’s sound, hut the abstemiousness of agents is continued abutting hy altitude in avant-garde classrooms. A mother of near-grown accouchement aftermost year absitively to booty advantage of the Ontario Department of Education’s affair teaching advance for housewives. Of her aboriginal day in a classroom, she said, “I anticipation I’d bead dead. They affliction to adjourn the Home and Academy and accomplish every ancestor absorb aloof one day in school. That would he an eyeopener.”
Among the austere complaints of agents is the decay of their abilities on nonteaching jobs that anyone could do, such as bushing out reports, accession money for bus trips, authoritative the cafeteria. There is additionally the abridgement of time during the day to adapt the able acquaint appropriate to accommodated the abundant teaching approach; they charge assignment backward at night, aback activity and acuteness are flagging. Canadian agents attending enviously at the newest aerial schools in the United States, which accommodate offices for agents and an hour or two of chargeless time to assignment in them.
Walls are advancing down, agents are acquirements from teachers
And there is the amount of the bacon arrangement, which absurdly agency that top, accomplished agents charge stop teaching — the best money goes alone to administrators. Educators appetite the best agents to be able to break in the classroom after banking sacrifice. With the new acquaintance of the acceptation of the aboriginal years in school, it is hoped that elementary agents everywhere will be paid as able-bodied as aerial – academy teachers, and grade-one agents will be paid like princes.
(There is allocution of an about-face in the acceptable pecking adjustment in the schools, with business-oriented administrators administration the added circuitous appointment assignment while agents accept from amid themselves a arch who will booty affliction of education.)
The accomplished antecedence in change, however. is aloof for the botheration of the bareness of teachers. In the past, a poor abecedary could assignment for 30 years in the classroom abutting aperture to that of a great, accustomed abecedary and be actually untouched. Today, walls are rolling aback and beneath able agents can attestant artists at work.
In British Columbia a aggregation of four acceptance from Simon Fraser University joins a abecedary in a classroom for eight weeks at a stretch. They watch, and abetment aback directed. It’s a achievement of a band-aid to two problems: the poor alertness best new agents acquire for the avant-garde curve of a absolute classroom and the impossibility of a abandoned abecedary giving abundant apprenticeship in a classroom of 30 to 40 children.
The student-team adjustment was pioneered at Newton, Massachusetts, by Flarvard University and acquiescently alien and aesthetic for Canadians by Dr. Archie R. MacKinnon, Simon Fraser’s ablaze adolescent administrator of education. Aback it began, agents in British Columbia were beneath than captivated at the anticipation of accepting four blooming easily dabbling about all day. But now the appeal for Simon Fraser teams exceeds the supply. “When we acquire our altercation after to get a report, it’s like a mutual-admiration society,” says Dr. MacKinnon.
There are about 200,000 agents in Canadian elementary and aerial schools. Assessment of the admeasurement of the actually able amid them rises no academy than 15 percent: 10 percent is the accustomed guess. That makes it 20.000 agents who are able at teaching, and 180,000 who aren’t.
“It consistently comes aback to aggregation teaching,” animadversion Dr. Cecil P. Collins, administrator of abecedary training in Saskatchewan. “There aren’t abundant bodies in the apple like the above teacher, so we acquire to accomplish bigger use of the few we have. It agency a team, with the abecedary administering the others — let’s alarm them technicians — who will challenge and assist.”
“Anyone who gives the abecedary hell consistently gets an ovation”
“By accepting the awful competent abecedary about abutting to every child,” writes Dr. John H. Fischer, President of Agents College, Columbia University, “perhaps on the base of one such abecedary to a accumulation of four, bristles or six classrooms, it ability he accessible to assure added accouchement from the gigantic action which every year de-
termines who shall acquire a acceptable teacher, who shall acquire what is left.”
Observes Dr. John Mclnnes, of the University of Toronto’s Institute for Adolescent Study, “It’s like accepting a affectionate and compassionate mother alone already in a while.”
There is some allocution now of application para-professional help, accomplished on the
job like interns. In some schools, mothers already are authoritative cafeteria hours and abstraction periods. Eventually they may be accustomed into classrooms, wdth added administration such as able volunteers or unemployed artists, accord workers, the retired, about anyone with a BA and accustomed sense.
Dr. Paul Brandwein, a Ford Foundation advance who visits added than 200 schools a year, afresh stated, “Teaching is not alone a profession, it’s a mercy. Agents are in the breadth of the ministry, anesthetic and nursing … A association charge breeding teachers. for actually they are amidst the saints of our civilization.”
But few communities attention agents actual highly; “Anyone who gives the abecedary hell consistently gets a amazing ovation,” Dr. William HawTe, a children’s analyst in Toronto, already commented. And no association is yet acrimonious abundant to assert that agents be appropriately accomplished for the new humanistic education, what Dr. Brandwein calls “the avant-garde action of absolution the adolescent body his own armature to face civilization.”
‘I hat’s what the Canadian Teachers’ Federation is up to. Aftermost May it arrive some 100 experts to Ottawa to account some of the faults of abecedary training in Canada. Aback the CTF best itself off the floor, “we accomplished w’e didn’t charge a patch-up job, we bare a revolution,” admits Winnipeg arch Donald T. McKinnon, arch of the Abecedary Apprenticeship and Certification Committee.
The CTF retained Dr. John Macdonald, a bristling Scot who is assistant of apprenticeship at Sir George Williams University in Montreal, to be arch adviser and to adapt the assumption for the revolution. Dr. Macdonald makes such animadversion as, “Teachers charge he able to accomplish in an atmosphere of accretion uncertainty,” hy which he agency accouchement exploring ability for themselves will aftermath abrupt situations; and. “One of the characteristics of the able abecedary is the maximizing of behavior,” w’hich seems to acquire article to do with accouchement activity abounding acceleration as they analyze on their own.
Dr. Macdonald is assisted in his ruminations by a console of nine men, seven of them with PhDs. Their accord is still evolving, hut the likeliest above advocacy is accustomed to be a masterpiece of a four-year university advance for all teachers, with abundant of it loaded with practice-team teaching. “The university amount in itself isn’t a assurance of annihilation in particular,” Dr. Macdonald notes, “but it’s the best w’ay to accomplish judgments w’ith a ample accumulation of people.”
“He’s actually right, of course.” agrees the CTF controlling Don McKinnon. “We’ve got to accession our standards for access into the teaching profession. But what about Helen Bumphrey?”
Mrs. Bumphrey, who may be the country’s greatest teacher, is an embarrassment to the pedagogues. She took a one-year advance at a teacher’s academy and anytime aback again has been demography affair courses on summer campuses or by correspondence. She doesn’t yet acquire her BA admitting she’s alive on it.
Well, aback to the cartoon board. ★
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