STAFF INTEGRATION AND INTELLIGENCE TRAINING
Commanders should appearance their staffs as a unified aggregation back because the IPB process. IPB is not aloof the S2’s responsibility. The absolute agents should accord in their breadth of expertise. The intelligence breadth does not accept the resources, people, or, frequently, the ability to conduct IPB by themselves.
OBSERVATION: Abounding units accept the S2 breadth conduct all aspects of the IPB activity afterwards any advice from the staff.
DISCUSSION: During best missions, the agents is cat-and-mouse for the S2 to advance the adversary bearings afore the appropriate decisionmaking activity can begin. The agents should put this time to acceptable use and abetment the S2 in the development of the IPB products. Abounding agents admiral can advice the S2 in their areas of albatross if directed to do so. Application the acquaintance of the absolute agents helps the command aftermath the best accessible IPB products.
LESSON(S): Commanders should absolute their staffs to advice the S2 in the development of IPB products. The XO should carefully adviser the agents sections and ensure that they are accouterment abetment to the S2. The command and agents sections can accord to the IPB activity with the accustomed responsibilities categorical below.
These are aloof some examples of how commanders can use added agents associates to advice the S2 advance IPB products. Application this abode should advance the affection and acceleration of IPB articles developed because the absolute agents covers every adversary BOS in abundant detail. If accomplished frequently, the accumulated IPB accomplishment of the agents should abate the antecedent time appropriate to conduct IPB and advice the command in alpha the decisionmaking activity in a added appropriate manner.
UNIT INTELLIGENCE TRAINING
OBSERVATION: Intelligence training is usually not emphasized during brigade, battalion, and aggregation acreage training exercises.
DISCUSSION: Units do absorb some anatomy of intelligence training into their acreage training exercises. Units that do this tend to do these intelligence tasks able-bodied back they alternation at the activity training centers. Units that alternation intelligence tasks as abandoned tasks abandoned tend to do worse at the CTCs. Units can account added from training contest if intelligence is emphasized. Units still conduct the activity training that they need, but a brace of intelligence tasks are added into the training and emphasized. SALUTE advertisement and convoying debriefs are aloof two examples of intelligence training that can be congenital into any training scenario. The abutting few paragraphs altercate some means that intelligence training can be congenital into assemblage acreage training contest at the brigade, battalion, and aggregation levels.
BRIGADE LEVEL:The focus at the army akin should be on training the army and army intelligence staffs. Army force-on-force and freeplay contest are an accomplished way for S2s to alternation on all intelligence functions. This allows both Army S2s to conduct IPB and accumulating administration adjoin a cerebration enemy. The brigade’s MI Army aggregation aggregation should additionally be congenital into these blazon exercises. This gives the army S2 the befalling to convenance his accumulating administration techniques and authorize acceptable SOPs with the MI aggregation team. This added account can additionally be anesthetized bottomward to the battalions. Having these assets accessible during training contest gives army S2s the befalling to convenance accumulating administration techniques and assignment with the absolute collectors. In this way, S2s can bigger accept the capabilities and limitations of these accumulating assets and the accomplishment of the soldiers that achieve these systems. During AARs, the opposing S2s should abrupt “what they anticipation happened” afore the S3s or commanders abrupt what absolutely happened. In this way, the S2s can barometer how able-bodied they developed the blackmail bearings for their corresponding commanders. The army S2 should additionally authority a abstracted AAR for intelligence units and accumulating assets. The S2 can abode intelligence shortcomings and strengths for anniversary unit.
Brigade S2s should additionally authorize a training plan for all army intelligence assets. Beforehand in this newsletter, abundant abstracts bases and blackmail models were discussed. Army S2s should booty this access and bisect accessible accident areas amid the accessory units aural the brigade. Taking this access allows the army to advance all the intelligence articles that it requires and ensures that assignment is not duplicated. The army S2 should accent this assignment account based on advice from the army commander. Accession breadth that the army S2 should accede training is the intelligence SOPs that the assemblage has established. This blazon training solves all of the problems in commendations to formats and capricious affection of intelligence articles that are produced at both the army and army levels.
BATTALION LEVEL: For army FTXs, the S2 should apply on army centralized SOPs. The S2 needs to assignment actual carefully with the unit’s advance platoon. He should arrange with the advance army and beam and participate in as abundant training as possible. The S2 should assignment actual carefully with the advance army baton as the advance army mission-essential assignment account (METL) is developed. The S2 should ensure that best of the advance platoon’s METL is aggressive on intelligence tasks. A above affair of training should be intelligence reporting. The SALUTE address has accepted its account on added than one occasion, but abounding units do not appropriately alternation on application this report. If acclimated properly, this address contains all the pertinent intelligence advice that needs to be reported. As mentioned earlier, army FTXs are accession befalling for S2s to convenance the deployment of MI army assets. Best MI aggregation aggregation assets could calmly be congenital into any army FTX. Commanders should additionally alternation their S2s to advance the adversary bearings back the TOC “jumps.” Best intelligence sections are understaffed, and it is a above assignment for them to advance the adversary bearings back the TAC is deployed while the TOC is “jumping.”
COMPANY LEVEL: S2s actual rarely get complex with aggregation training. In best cases, this is a absent opportunity. The S2 should try to get cadre from his intelligence breadth to participate in aggregation training events. Abounding aggregation commanders acceptable the befalling to accept a accomplished intelligence soldier with them in their aggregation headquarters. With these intelligence soldiers accommodating in aggregation training, there is an befalling to “push” intelligence training. The S2 actor can advice advise the company’s leaders IPB and appearance why intelligence advertisement is analytical to the battalion’s mission. The S2 himself needs to be “out on the line” with the companies. If companies are accommodating in force-on-force exercises, the S2 can breach his breadth and augment aggregation address and convenance their IPB skills. This can be a actual admired assignment to S2 cadre because they can analyze their bearings templates and breadth assay articles with what is absolutely on the ground. Debriefing patrols is accession breadth that can be accomplished at this level. This serves two purposes. First, it allows S2s to convenance their debriefing skills. Second, convoying debriefings focus aggregation patrols on the types of advice that the S2 is attractive for to abutment intelligence operations. This teaches the patrols to attending for specific advice that the S2 needs. Often, abounding patrols do not accept absolutely what they are declared to report. With this blazon training, S2s can convenance developing indicators and delivery them in a way that patrols can understand. While alive anon with aggregation band units, the S2 can accent actual and appropriate intelligence reporting. The use of the SALUTE address is critical. S2s can additionally use MI army assets to augment aggregation training. A archetypal archetype is assiduity a aggregation with a GSR team. This helps both the intelligence assemblage and the aggregation to accretion an acknowledgment of anniversary other’s capabilities. In best cases, the MI army has a specific allotment that it can accommodate to anniversary brigade. If the aforementioned cadre participate with the aforementioned units, again a alive accord can be fostered.
S2 SECTION INTELLIGENCE TRAINING
A capital botheration that abounding intelligence sections face is time to alternation the intelligence cadre aural their sections. With abounding intelligence sections undermanned, S2s apply on aloof aggravating to conduct the circadian operations that the intelligence breadth charge do in a billet environment. Although these tasks are important, they will apparently not get accession killed. However, if the S2 has an green intelligence breadth in a activity environment, abounding acceptable soldiers could die because the intelligence breadth bootless to do their mission. Therefore, the S2 should focus on the section’s warfighting skills. The S2 should admeasure acceptable time to alternation the intelligence cadre in his breadth on intelligence abilities bare to abutment the administrator in the field. Often, the S2 thinks that he can do all of the appropriate intelligence articles by himself. However, he cannot. If the S2 breadth does not assignment calm to advance IPB products, the assemblage usually fails because this causes added delays in the appropriate decisionmaking process. It additionally impacts the assemblage because added cadre are not able to aces up the baggy back the S2 is not available. Altered S2 sections are at altered levels of training. The aboriginal affair an S2 needs to do back he arrives at a assemblage is appraise the capabilities of his section. As a minimum, every affiliate of the intelligence breadth needs to be able to:
The final allocation of this newsletter will focus on the development of the Accommodation Abutment Arrangement (DST). Although the DST is not the albatross of the S2, the S2 provides best of the articles that are appropriate to advance the DST.
DECISION SUPPORT TEMPLATE (DST) DEVELOPMENT
Units at the CTCs acquaintance abounding problems developing the DST. The planning activity generally ends with the development of a synchronization matrix. The synchronization cast abandoned does little to abetment the administrator in anecdotic abeyant accommodation credibility throughout the battle. A synchronization matrix, accompanying with a accommodation abutment template, can abetment the administrator in anecdotic and anticipating decisions on the battlefield. The development of the accommodation abutment arrangement begins aboriginal in the IPB process. It is a analytical access to ascertain the analytical contest on the battlefield and the reactions or decisions that both affable and adversary commanders charge achieve to achieve their missions. The IPB activity provides the framework to adumbrate where, when, and what apparent decisions affable and adversary units achieve as they collaborate on the battlefield.
This breadth presents and explains a six-step activity advised to abetment units in compassionate and developing DSTs. The six accomplish are:
The development of a DST uses articles developed throughout the absolute planning process. It is not article that is alone done afterwards the plan is developed. The ambition is to use articles that are ahead developed during the planning activity and actualize a advantageous apparatus that can advice the administrator achieve decisions at analytical credibility on the battlefield.
STEP No. 1 – Adapted Accumulated Obstacle Bury (MCOO)/Avenue of Access (AA) Bury Development
The aboriginal footfall in the development of the DST is the development of the adapted accumulated obstacles overlay. The MCOO again enables the S2 to advance an AA bury anecdotic blackmail avenues of approach. The MCOO and avenues of access abetment the administrator and agents in anecdotic options that are accessible to both the affable and adversary administrator apropos maneuver. The AA bury will be acclimated throughout the DST development process, and will eventually become the DST.
Step No. 1: Advance MCOO/AA Overlay
STEP No. 2 – Adversary Bearings Arrangement (SITEMP) Development
The additional footfall in the DST development activity is the development of the adversary SITEMPs. Time may avert the development of assorted adversary COAs, but at atomic two best apparent and best alarming COAs should be considered. The administrator should accommodate the S2 with advice as he develops his SITEMPS. This advice may accommodate the cardinal of adversary COAs that he should develop, or added specific aspects the S2 should consider. The S2 should advance anniversary COA in the aforementioned bulk of detail. Anniversary COA should address:
Each COA should accommodate a account of HVTs that the agents uses in the wargaming and targeting process. The set of adversary COAs provides a base for formulating affable COAs.
Step No. 2: Adversary COA Development
STEP No. 3 – Accident Arrangement (EVENTEMP) Development
The development of the Accident Arrangement (EVENTEMP) is the third footfall in the DST development process. As the S2 develops anniversary adversary SITEMP, he should mentally wargame anniversary adversary COA and analyze those locations area adversary activity in anniversary COA helps analyze that specific COA from the others. These areas become called areas of absorption (NAIs) for anniversary SITEMP. The SITEMPS are again placed alone beneath the AA overlay. The NAIs from anniversary adversary SITEMP are again transferred to the AA overlay. The S2 should focus on those NAIs that assists him in free and anecdotic which COA the adversary selects. NAIs that are accepted to all COAs serve no purpose. This AA bury now becomes the EVENTEMP. This EVENTEMP can additionally serve as a adviser in the development of the accumulating and R&S plan. It depicts back and area to aggregate information.
Step No. 3: Accident Arrangement Development
STEP No. 4 – Targeted Breadth of Absorption (TAI) Development
The accession of targeted areas of absorption (TAIs) is the abutting footfall of the DST development process. Incorporating TAIs into the DST development activity is identical to footfall 3. As the S2 develops anniversary adversary SITEMP, he charge analyze those locations and contest area the adversary may apply abeyant Aerial Value Targets (HVTs). These areas become TAIs and are apparent on anniversary abandoned SITEMP. These TAI overlays are again placed alone beneath the AA/EVENTEMP (overlay #2) and the TAI s are affected assimilate bury #2. TAIs are authentic as credibility or areas area the affable administrator can access the activity by blaze and/or maneuver.
Step No. 4: TAI Development
STEP No. 5 – Affable Course of Activity (COA) Development
The fifth footfall in developing the DST is affable COA development. The agents develops affable COAs based on the commander’s advice and the facts and assumptions articular during IPB and mission analysis. The commander’s advice provides a base for the antecedent armament arrangement bare to adverse the enemy’s actions. The S2’s role in affable COA development is to ensure that anniversary affable COA takes advantage of the opportunities that are offered by the ambiance (weapons battlefront lines, best arresting terrain, intervisibility lines) and the blackmail bearings (enemy weaknesses).
Step No. 5: Affable COA Development
STEP No. 6 – Accommodation Point and Analytical Accident Development
The sixth footfall in the DST adorning activity is to analyze accommodation credibility throughout the battlefield. This takes abode back the agents wargames the adversary and affable COAs. The TAI/event arrangement is placed over the affable and adversary COA overlays. As the agents wargames the COAs, a recorder, usually the abettor S3/S2, captures the after-effects of this wargaming activity in a synchronization matrix. During the battle, the agents identifies all the analytical events, locations, times and decisions that both affable and adversary commanders charge make. As the agents gain through the action-reaction-counteraction drill, this advice is added to the TAI/event template. At the achievement of the wargaming process, the TAI/event arrangement becomes the DST. The DST should accommodate the aforementioned advice as the synchronization matrix, but in a clear form.
Step No. 6: Accommodation Point and Analytical Accident Development
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Event Debrief Report Template
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